Professor Amartya K. Sen, a Nobel Laureate in developmental mathematical economics in 1998, currently Professor at Harvard, is well known for his work on famine, human development index, welfare economics, and basic causes of poverty and widespread hunger, especially in the developing world. However, the social choice problems has for long bothered him, and he has asked "Equality of What? (1980), and has elaborated the relation between facts and values. My book examines Sen's philosophical attempt to theorize interstiiality and hybridity that takes us beyond culture as a specially localized phenomenon. Profoundly influenced by European Enlightenment and Indian philosophical and ethical values, he has reconcetualized "space" in the mode of interstitially and public culture, and has created subjects beyond the limits of a border.

Alongside his collaborator Martha Nussbaum, Sen has appeared as one of the preeminent spokespersons for the liberal sensibility. By crossing a border, Dr. Sen has viewed philosophy as a guide to new learning in areas such human rights, environmental ethics, globality, women's and men's agentic power to conclude that philosophy has a distinct role in our understanding the value of morality. My book seeks a new course of his vision that might qualify him to be a "man of destiny."

This edited collection of essays answers a basic question posed by contemporary discourse on state building: How might people's identification with a particular ethnic group matter? Essays in this book use an integrated, multi-disciplinary approach to understanding regional and local community culture and socio-political development in developing countries-especially in Sub-Saharan Africa-to argue that the state, as well as civil society, confers on cultural differences a legitimacy that can be achieved in no other way but by positive cooperation. Contributors from different countries look at local patterns in state building and modernization as they have unfolded over the course of the last fifty years. They claim that the people and ethnic groups in most developing countries adhere to a concept of popular sovereignty that testifies that aspects of positive and moral ethnicity can contribute to social change as in China, economic development as in India, or in a democratization process as in Rwanda and Burundi. The eventual methodological assumption made by these essays presumes that ethnic conflicts in such countries as Cyprus, Turkey, India, and Rwanda have no moral sanction; ethnicity has not assumed a political ideology. One conclusion reached by the contributors is that some form of accommodation between opposing ethnically diversified groups, as well as between state and ethnic elements, is feasible.


An authoritative guide to the complexities of ethnic conflict in terms of linguistics, territory, and ethnicity in various regions, The Politics of Ethnicity and National Identity argues that ethnicity, used as a tool both for oppression and for liberation, plays an influential and controversial role in constructive state-building. The contributors to this volume use various research methodologies to affirm that positive territorial identities often emerge from community-based organizations and groups. As an alternative to the derivative nationalist project that so far has only resulted in conditions for a soft state, this book examines the issue of whether ethnicity and community attachments are at the heart of civil conflict and war.


The existing traditions of inquiry into ethnic conflict can be classified into four categories: essentialism, instrumentalism, constructivism, and institutionalism. All four traditions have a distinguished lineage, but none can really account for the worldwide spread of ethnic violence. We need to move from the local to the macro or global. This book, using methodology from sociology, history, and politics, will present the complexities of ethnic conflict in terms of lingusitics, religion, territory, and tribes in various regions. These brilliant essays look at some of the most conflicted sites in the world, where ethnic violence has been created and played out: Burma, Indonesia, Rwanda, Burundi, Nigeria, the Sudan, Mexico, and Guyana. Divided into two parts, Perspectives on Contemporary Ethnic Conflict is a rich text for scholars of conflict studies, focusing on the sources and dynamics of ethnic violence and providing descriptions of ethnic conflict across the globe.


Today new and ever more pernicious forms of terrorist violence threaten the world. Because these new forms of violence are so often linked to religious radicalism, modern terrorism has challenged the secular ethics of contemporary civil society. There is a pressing need to understand modern religious movements that have added militancy and belligerence as fundamental elements of religious practice. Contributors to this volume painstakingly tackle the question of how to define the contours of current religious fundamentalism as they examine the private and public postures of fundamentalist rhetoric, the importance of its regional variants, and the damage it can do to regional and national education systems. Their analysis tracks trends in religious movements that aspire to radicalize, reform, and violently topple governments and nations, while highlighting the difference between fundamentalist interpretations and other longstanding juridical, political, and intellectual traditions.


Edited by Santosh Saha and Thomas Carr (Mount Union College)

(Edwin Mellen, 2003)

These essays examine the extent of religious influence on governmental and public policies, covering recent issues and many countries. Contributors are highly-recognized scholars in religious, historical and political science disciplines


Edited by Santosh Saha and Thomas Carr (Mount Union College)

(Greenwood Press, 2001)

Using a variety of methodological approaches, this timely book offers a thorough examination of the impact and implications of religious fundamentalism in developing nations. The authors explore why and how adherence to fundamentalist principles affects the social, political, and religious development of such countries as Israel, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Egypt, and the Philippines. One of the most significant contributions of this volume is that it challenges the assumption that fundamentalism in developing countries is based solely on religious motivations.

The authors maintain that fundamentalism of this sort is motivated by both religious and political convictions. This combination of religious and political motivations allows fundamentalism to exert a tremendous influence on the public policies of these developing nations. As the social fabric of such countries continues to be developed, it is clear that fundamentalism will continue to play a significant and potentially dangerous role.


(Gale Group, 1999)

By Anne Commire

with 1 Section by Santosh Saha

With more than 10,000 biographical entries, this is the most comprehensive women's history encyclopedia available. This ambitious work profiles women throughout time and throughout the world. More than 2,500 signed articles written by academics, up to 5,000 words in length, highlight a particular woman's personal background and significance in history. Shorter entries spotlight historically important women who are less frequently researched or for whom less information is available.

This encyclopedia features women from all walks of life, including: rulers, royalty, lawyers, politicians, soldiers, heroines, pacifists, resistance fighters, financiers, entrepreneurs, philanthropists, investors, authors and more. Coverage includes many women for whom profiles are not included in traditional sources.

There is a growing tendency in all of the developing countries to see the right to employment, education, and other basic rights as adjuncts to basic political rights. Also, in many African countries there have been movements for expansive rights that should include children's rights and women's rights in addition to the basic civil and political rights. Most current sources have selectively taken into consideration the work of politically oriented groups. This volume includes the status and work of human rights groups in Africa currently working to uphold both the basic as well as the expansive rights.

One possible way of resolving the conflict between relativism and universalism is to project commonalities of norms and values through examinations of many advocacy groups in Africa that highlight the plight of refugees, women, and children as well as civil and political rights. This dictionary lists the current advocacy groups working in Africa to uphold and protect both the basic political rights and the expansive rights of previously unacknowledged segments of the population from governmental infringements. Advocacy groups are listed A to Z with additional resource information following each entry. This book will be a useful reference to students and scholars of African history, Third World Studies, International Human Rights, and Political Science, and Academic libraries.


Arguing that despite political antagonism between the minority Americo-Liberians and the majority indigenous Liberians, this study documents a healthy and effective interaction which created a sort of cultural dualism in Liberia to the benefit of the African heritage.


This book analytically records the political and social history of traditional rulers of a southern district in Zambia. It reconstructs the biographical sketches of important chiefs and examines social codes such as marriages and divorces. The missionary influence in the Southern Province of Zambia is also examined. Partly based on field research in Zambia, it argues that despite many significant changes in the district, the traditional Tonga rulers were able to maintain their customary influence over the people.


(Gale Research, 1994)

By Anne Commire, Deborah Klezmer

with 3 sections by Santosh Saha

This 5-vol. biographical resource presents the lives, times and significant contributions of 625 social, political and religious leaders from earliest recorded times to the present. Each entry begins with background biographical information, including country, birth and death dates, burial site, marriages and children. An essay follows that describes personal, political and historic events that led to the leader's significance. The set is organized by geographic region to make historical comparisons easier.

While historians have argued that Americo-Liberians neglected agriculture and remained addicted to trade, this study shows that Americo-Liberians seriously attempted to correct this imbalance and, in the course of doing so, introduced a formal agriculture and transferred values from the New World

(Peter Lang, 1990)

This bibliographical reference work on the dynamics of Indo-U.S. relations from 1947 to 1989 fills up a gap in the information sources of the varied and complex relations between the two largest democracies in the world. With annotations of archival sources and valuable summaries of books, articles, and government documents, the guide will prove to be very useful to researchers in Indo-American diplomatic history, librarians both in the U.S. and outside, and university students. Moreover, the book lists relevant basic documents on economic cooperation in order to make it clear that Indo-U.S. relations were substantial.


While historians have argued that Americo-Liberians neglected agriculture and remained addicted to trade, this study shows that Americo-Liberians seriously attempted to correct this imbalance and, in the course of doing so, introduced a formal agriculture and transferred values from the New World.